Melting Alaska glacier could unleash ‘mega-tsunami’ hundreds of feet tall THIS year ... 16 times more debris and 11 times more energy than Alaska's 1958 Lituya Bay landslide and … (Map from Miller, Great Waves in Lituya Bay, Alaska), During the earthquake, the bay side of Gilbert and Crillon inlets moved about 20 feet northwest relative to the northeast wall that forms the head of the bay. A flying boat dropped Paddy Sherman’s mountaineering expedition at Lituya Bay on June 17, 1958. Damage from the 1958 Lituya Bay megatsunami can be seen in this oblique aerial photograph of Lituya Bay, Alaska as the lighter areas at the shore where trees have been stripped away. The move that I just made looks like this: 1958 Lituya Bay megatsunami → 1958 Lituya Bay, Alaska earthquake and megatsunami. Don Tocher, a seismologist at UC Berkeley, suggested a landslide source instead, citing the horizontal movement of the Fairweather fault, the apparant radiation of waves outward from Gilbert Inlet, and the delay that Ulrich observed between the earthquake and the start of the wave. Hence, there was little effect on human settlements. The boat crashed down and foundered on the far side of the spit, but Swanson and his wife Vivian were able to escape the wreck in their skiff with just the clothes they were wearing and a chair for a paddle. It’s also possible that big landslides are becoming more common as glaciers retreat, removing support from the lower slopes of steep valleys. The earthquake struck at 10:16pm. After a minute or so of shaking, Ulrich heard a great roar from the head of the bay. (Photo: USGS), The spur that forms the corner between Gilbert Inlet and the main body of Lituya Bay. All told, five people were killed by the earthquake and subsequent wave in Lituya Bay. When hot weather made glacier travel untenable, they returned to Lituya Bay and radioed a request to be picked up on July 10. A little after midnight, a boat responding to Ulrich's mayday calls found and rescued the Swansons. On July 10, 1958, a magnitude 7.7 earthquake occurred on the Fairweather Fault in southeast Alaska. Scientists who had not seen the effects of the wave firsthand argued that above 300 feet, the soil and trees must have slid into the bay during the earthquake. By 9pm they were in the air, leaving behind three fishing boats that had come into the steep-walled bay for the night. The impact generated a local tsunami that crashed against the southwest shore… It’s also possible that big landslides are becoming more common as glaciers retreat, removing support from the lower slopes of steep valleys. Six years later, the magnitude 9.2 Great Alaska earthquake would trigger landslide tsunamis across southern Alaska, accounting for many of the deaths from that earthquake. Usually even a megatsunami like Lituya Bay is a localized disaster, and technology-based warning systems cannot work quickly enough to help people just a few miles from the source. Philip Fradkin (2001), Wildest Alaska, University of California. The Wagners on the Sunmore reacted first, raising their anchor and making for the entrance of the bay. There, a collapsing bluff started a wave that killed four people and caused much damage in the village of, . They felt the quake and watched as an 800-foot stretch of the island's beach disappeared into the bay along with three of their friends. Don Miller, a USGS, Above: The stump of a living tree broken off by the wave at the mouth of Lituya Bay, about 7 miles from where the wave originated. Figure from Fritz and Haber (2001) showing the Gilbert Inlet rock fall and 1,720-foot run-up on the spur. But a record-breaking tsunami of a different sort occurred in 1958, in a remote part of Alaska known as Lituya Bay — and was witnessed by only six people, two of whom died. Some 27,000 people died. The other three deaths occurred eighty miles north, on a beach on Khantaak Island. They felt the quake and watched as an 800-foot stretch of the island's beach disappeared into the bay along with, To Miller, the destruction he saw was clearly the work of a giant wave, but its height seemed unbelievable. (Photo: Paul Swanstrom), A flying boat dropped Paddy Sherman’s mountaineering expedition at Lituya Bay on June 17, 1958. The lighthouse at Harbor Point and the cabin on Cenotaph Island were both gone without a trace. Alaska, Ecuador and Peru saw fairly high activity. At Yakutat, bridges, docks, and oil lines were damaged, a water tower fell, and a few cabins were destroyed. Nearer the mouth of the bay, at Anchorage Cove, the wave picked up the Badger and threw it over the spit. The undersea slide that, So far we have been lucky to have few human impacts from recent landslide tsunamis in Alaska, but a disaster in Greenland in 2017 should serve as a warning. Gilbert Inlet and Crillon Inlet are at the back, mostly hidden by terrain. It caused significant geologic changes in the region, including areas that experienced uplift and subsidence. World's Biggest Tsunami: The largest recorded tsunami with a wave 1720 feet tall in Lituya Bay, Alaska. Miller wrote that his observations were "widely doubted both on theoretical grounds and on the basis of aerial observations and study of photographs by others." This 7.8Mw earthquake was characterized as extreme and triggered many rockslides accounting to three million cubic meters that fell into the Lituya Bay … On July 9, 1958, the largest wave in modern history occurred in Lituya Bay, on the northern Southeast Alaska coast about halfway between Cape Spencer and Yakutat. The biggest tsunami in present times struck at Lituya Bay, Alaska on July 9, 1958. During the earthquake, the southwest side of the inlets moved about 20 feet northwest relative to the opposite shore, on the other side of the fault. So far we have been lucky to have few human impacts from recent landslide tsunamis in Alaska, but a disaster in Greenland in 2017 should serve as a warning. A full-grown Alaskan brown bear on the rocky slope looked the size of a mite. 1936: Lituya Bay, Alaska. The Fairweather fault runs directly through Gilbert and Crillon inlets, which form the crosspiece at the top of Lituya Bay's distinctive "T" shape. In some respects, it created a similar reaction to that which would have occurred if an asteroid had fallen into the water. The combination of steep slopes rising directly out of the sea, rapid erosion from glaciers and heavy coastal precipitation, and frequent earthquakes all contribute to frequent landslides capable of causing tsunamis. Avalanches were coming down the mountains at the head of the bay. Miller, USGS/Wikimedia Commons). They flew over rafts of logs fanning out in the open water as far as five miles from the mouth of the bay. Lituya Bay is a fjord located on the Fairweather Fault in the northeastern part of the Gulf of Alaska. Find Lituya Bay in Google Earth and you'll see the marks today. Scientists were puzzled for some time by the sheer size of the wave, because they could not identify a mechanism that could have created such a massive reaction. A second Berkeley researcher, R.L. Unfortunately, the qualities that make Lituya Bay so prone to landslide tsunamis are found in bays and fjords throughout Southeast Alaska. Twenty-one of his men perished in the tidal current in the bay. (Photo: USGS). At approximately 10:15 PM Pacific Time, a magnitude 8.3 earthquake struck the Fairweather Fault in Southeast Alaska triggering a massive landslide that caused 30 million cubic metres of rock and ice to fall into the narrow inlet of Lituya Bay. Fittingly, a research vessel named after Miller served as George Plafker's base of operations for some of his work studying changes to the Alaska coastline after the 1964 earthquake--work that would greatly advance understanding of plate tectonics and especially subduction. We develop seismic policies and share information to promote programs intended to reduce earthquake-related losses. Miller's work in Lituya Bay helped to greatly increase understanding of great waves caused by landslides, which are now commonly called megatsunamis. A 1,720 foot tsunami towered over Lituya Bay, a quiet fjord in Alaska, after an earthquake rumbled 13 miles away. 11,300 feet up Mount St. Elias, another group of climbers felt the ground moving in waves as avalanches pounded down the slopes around them. The hat brim is 12 inches in diameter. The Sunmore had vanished, and the Wagners were never found. 1958 Lituya Bay This earthquake is also remembered because of the mega tsunami that followed it, killing lots of people. This mass of rock plunged from an altitude of approximately 3000 feet (914 meters) down into the waters of Gilbert Inlet (see map below). From there it raced toward the mouth of the bay—and the fishing boats—with some side-to-side sloshing that accounted for variations in the height of the trimline along the length of the bay. The undersea slide that killed one in Skagway in 1994 was not triggered by an earthquake at all, but by an extreme low tide. This tsunami is analogous to the tallest ever recorded tsunami, which hit Lituya Bay, Alaska in 1958. Miller believed he had identified four such waves over the last century, but he did not know their cause. All five deaths occurred in the water, which speaks to the nature of earthquake hazards in Southeast. Hermann Fritz and Willi Hager (2001), "Lituya Bay Case: Rock Slide Impat and Wave Run-Up", Don J. Miller (1960), "Giant Waves at Lituya Bay, Alaska", Don Tocher (1960), "The Alaska Earthquake of July 10, 1958: Movement on the Fairweather Fault and Field Investigation of Southern Epicentral Region", Steven N. Ward and Simon Day (2010), "The 1958 Lituya Bay Landslide and Tsunami - A Tsunami Ball Approach", Lituya Bay (at center left) offers the only sheltered anchorage for a long stretch of Southeast coast. Accessed November 20, 2020. Cenotaph Island is at center. Our. Wiegel's and Fritz's research reinforced Miller's observations as well as Ulrich's eyewitness account of the massive wave in Gilbert Inlet. The 1958 cataclysm was triggered by a … For most of the bay, destruction below the trimline was absolute. People living in coastal communities should understand how megatsunamis happen and what to do if they are near the water when they feel an earthquake or witness a large slide (hint: run uphill). Howard Ulrich had brought his seven-year-old son along on the Edrie. geologist, had already documented a total of three other major tsunamis at this location; he flew out to the site the next day, and although he was able to take photos from the air, it was another three weeks before it was safe enough to land to document the destruction. Left: Decades after the tsunami, damage to the edges of the bay (the light green areas) can clearly be seen on this Landsat image. Lituya Bay is a fjord located on the coast of the south-east part of the U.S. state of Alaska. The, A hundred miles up the coast, in Yakutat Bay, a couple was heading home in a skiff after picking berries on Khantaak Island. The wave was brought on by an enormous 8.3 magnitude earthquake that hit the Fairweather Fault and caused a massive earth landslide. Opposite this scar, on the spur that forms the corner between Gilbert Inlet and the main part of the bay, pilot Kenneth Loken flew alongside a sharp new trimline below which the trees and earth had been stripped away to clean bedrock. This was so big that it is known scientifically as a megatsunami. This is a sampling of small clips of 8 mm film transferred to DVD. (Map from Miller, Great Waves in Lituya Bay, Alaska), Aerial view of Lituya Bay. The largest event was a magnitude 8.3 earthquake in Russia in November. All five deaths occurred in the water, which speaks to the nature of earthquake hazards in Southeast. Obviously, megatsunamis will happen again, and possibly without warning. Six years later, the magnitude 9.2 Great Alaska earthquake would trigger landslide tsunamis across southern Alaska, accounting for many of the deaths from that earthquake. Ultimately, it was discovered that a piece of rock, 2,400 feet by 3,000 feet, and 300 feet thick, had dislodged from the face of the northern wall of the inlet, and fallen 2,000 feet into the bay. But Miller had seen driftwood and rocks strewn across the slopes at the top of the trimline, and the trees that had not been washed into the bay all lay on the ground pointing westward, as the wave had traveled. In the morning, he learned of the disaster in Lituya Bay and chartered a float plane to take him there. My ship seemed very small there beneath the steep walls of ice and stone. Two of the deaths were the Wagners, who had tried to flee Lituya Bay aboard the Sunmore; they were never seen again. Damage from the 1958 megatsunami … A total of five people were killed in the event: three people died on Khantaak Island at the mouth of Yakutat Bay when the beach they were standing on subsided 100 feet below sea level; the other two died when their boat was sunk by the tsunami at Lituya Bay. Up on the northeast wall, Miller spotted a huge landslide scar with cascades of rock still running down it. Most of this total came from earthquakes in Iran and Ecuador Overall ... 5 people were killed in the 1958 Lituya Bay, Alaska earthquake and megatsunami. Make It Happen Memories. Slope stability assessments can help to identify potential slides before they happen, but this is expensive, and Southeast's thousands of miles of steep coastline make it impractical except in a small number of targeted locations. Three persons were killed in Lituya Bay, and two people were missing and presumed dead who were caught in the tsunami. That was not the case in 2015, when 180 million tons of rock—the largest non-volcanic landslide ever documented in North Amerca—into Taan Fjord, an inlet of Icy Bay. On July 9, 1958, an earthquake with an estimated magnitude of 7.7-8.3 triggered an enormous rockfall in a remote bay along the Gulf of Alaska. Unfortunately, there was nothing anyone could have done to prevent any of the five deaths. I think I have resolved the issue that I mentioned three years ago by including the words "Alaska" and "earthquake" in the title (a few sources that I looked at labeled the earthquake the "1958 Alaska earthquake"). People living in coastal communities should understand how megatsunamis happen and what to do if they are near the water when they feel an earthquake or witness a large slide (hint: run uphill). Our tsunami inundation maps include landslide tsunami scenarios for some of Alaska's most at-risk communities, showing which areas are likely to be safe and which are not. Over the next three weeks, the climbers made the, The mountaineers’ pilot came early, on the evening of July 9, forcing a mad scramble to leave before nightfall. July 9, 1958: Regarded as the largest recorded in modern times, the tsunami in Lituya Bay, Alaska was caused by a landslide triggered by an 8.3 magnitude earthquake. On July 10, 1958, a magnitude 7.7 earthquake occurred on the Fairweather Fault in southeast Alaska. To Miller, the destruction he saw was clearly the work of a giant wave, but its height seemed unbelievable. When an earthquake strikes...Drop, Cover and Hold on! This was followed by an explosion of water in Gilbert Inlet, which gave birth to a wave that Ulrich described as “the smallest part of the whole thing” even though it was at least 100 feet high. Lituya Bay offers the only sheltered anchorage for a long stretch of Southeast Alaska coast, but the bay itself is hardly safe. Ward and Day describe how the initial rockfall could have triggered a second submarine slide of glacial sediment capable of generating the wave observed in the outer bay. In June 2016, pilot Paul Swanstrom followed a strange dust plume and found the aftermath of a more than 100-million-ton slide onto the Lamplugh Glacier. Giant Waves in Lituya Bay Alaska By DON J. MILLER SHORTER. This massive tremor triggered around 30.6 million cubic meters of rock to fall 3,000 feet into the Lituya Glacier, causing a torrent of displaced water to rear up and form a monstrous wave which, miraculously, only killed five people. Some of the material landed on the toe of Tyndall Glacier, but enough of it slammed into the water to generate a megatsunami with 600-foot run-up. The bay was noted in 1786 by Jean-François de Lapérouse, who named it Port des Français. Conferences, Workshops and Board Meetings, 2015 WSSPC Registration (Payment By Check), Join/Renew Affiliate Membership (Credit Card), Engineering, Construction and Building Codes Committee. A landslide like this into water would generate a megatsunami. The strike-slip earthquake took place on the Fairweather Fault and triggered a rockslide of 40 million cubic yards (30 million cubic meters and about 90 million tons) into the narrow inlet of Lituya Bay, Alaska. As the waves calmed, Ulrich piloted through the debris and made a harrowing escape through the shallow entrance at around 11pm. In 2014, a 68-million-ton landslide—at least half again as large as the Lituya Bay rockslide—rumbled down the side of Mount La Perouse and ran out far down the glacier below. By 9pm they were in the air, leaving behind three fishing boats that had come into the steep-walled bay for the night. The tsunami was triggered by an 8.3 magnitude earthquake, triggering … Don Miller, the geologist, was on a USGS barge in Glacier Bay when the earthquake struck. Fortunately, both of these slides ran out onto glaciers instead of into water. It is 14.5 km long and 3.2 km wide at its widest point. Some of the material landed on the toe of Tyndall Glacier, but enough of it slammed into the water to, Large earthquakes sometimes start the landslides that cause megatsunamis, as in Lituya Bay, but not always. The Sunmore (S) and Badger (B) were anchored in Anchorage Cove, while the Edrie (E) was anchored in the small cove behind the Paps hills. Unfortunately, landslide tsunamis are especially difficult disasters to prepare for. Incredibly, the altimeter read 1,800 feet—1,300 feet higher than the 1936 trimline. Accessed November 20, 2020. The four eyewitnesses to the wave in Lituya Bay itself all survived and described it as … Only the outermost mile of coast had scattered stands of surviving trees. The barge heaved, and Miller watched as rocks fell from high cliffs into the bay. Their 2010 paper describes a possible double slide, where the destruction of the toe of Lituya Glacier triggered a much larger, slower submarine slide of glacial deposits after the initial rockslide. Accessed November 20, 2020. It also caused a rockfall in Lituya Bay that generated a wave with a maximum height of 1,720 feet – the world’s largest recorded tsunami. Scientists fear the resulting event could happen "within the next year" and would drastically outclass the 1958 Lituya Bay Mega Tsunami in Alaska. Aerial photograph of Lituya Bay a few weeks after the 1958 tsunami. The seven miles long and two miles narrow Lituya Bay. Not always feet—1,300 feet higher than the 1936 trimline 159 people, he! 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