This is true for high-income countries. The third, and most deadly one, affected Asia, Europe, North America and Africa. Cholera is an intestinal disease caused by a strain of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae and can cause death within hours after the first symptoms if there is no treatment. [14] Children are also more susceptible, with two- to four-year-olds having the highest rates of infection. [74], The word cholera is from Greek: χολέρα kholera from χολή kholē "bile". There were three large cholera outbreaks in the 1800s, which can be attributed to Vibrio cholerae's spread through interior waterways like the Erie Canal and routes along the Eastern Seaboard. [80] The third pandemic erupted in 1846, persisted until 1860, extended to North Africa, and reached South America, for the first time specifically affecting Brazil. The next video describes the cholera epidemic in Haiti in 2010. London 1987, Huber, Valeska. The investigation continued. [citation needed], Stool and swab samples collected in the acute stage of the disease, before antibiotics have been administered, are the most useful specimens for laboratory diagnosis. 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