Kenneth M. Setton, Robert Lee Wolff, et al. Check availability: HBZ Gateway: Published: Cambridge Univ. On December 15, 1256, the Mongols captured Alamut and destroyed the power of the Hashshashin. After gaining control of Syria, they set their sights on Egypt. The Mamluks were a select fighting force of Turks. Sultan Qutuz himself did not survive to return to Cairo in triumph. The Mamluks occupied the Egypt and Syrian region in the 1200s AD. They were able to take the city, and ten days later its embattled … I agree , There name is The Rightly Guided Caliphs or The Righteous Caliphs (However, the Mongols had defeated other well-organized forces, such as the Song Chinese.). The Mamluks entered Palestine to confront the Mongol army that Hulagu left behind under the command of Kitbuqa. Book description. However, the leader of the Mongol homeland, Tolui's son Arik-Boke, called for a quick council (kuriltai) and had himself named Great Khan. Whither can you flee? In 1250, the widow of Ayyubid sultan as-Salih Ayyub married a Mamluk, Emir Aybak, who then became sultan. After only a seven-day siege, Aleppo fell, and some of the population was massacred. 2 (Dec., 1984), 307-345. Barsbay dispatched a small fleet composed of both Syrian and Egyptian ships to raid Cyprus in 1424. The Mamluks also deployed an early form of firearm, a sort of hand-held cannon, which frightened the Mongol horses. By using ThoughtCo, you accept our, In the Other Corner: The Mamluk Dynasty of Egypt. This was the beginning of the Bahri Mamluk Dynasty, which ruled Egypt until 1517. In the course of battle Qutuz’s horse was hit, but the sultan was unscathed. The Mongols then found themselves surrounded on all sides. What Motivated the Mongol Conquests of Genghis Khan? Additional troubleshooting information here. Qutuz and Baibars concealed the bulk of their force in the trees of the highlands of the area, and on the morning of 3 September 1260, they drew Kitbuqa and his … The Mamluks pursued them all the way. When the Mongols reached the highlands, Mamluk forces emerged from hiding and began to fire arrows and attack with their cavalry. Militarily formidable, they were also the first power to defeat the Mongols in open combat when, in 1260, the Mongols moved against Palestine and Egypt. Not knowing their real fathers, … The Mongols had the advantages of self-confidence and hardier horses, but the Mamluks knew the terrain better and had larger (thus faster) steeds. It has been suggested that the Mongols, the invincible force of the time, were outclassed by the Mamluks on the battlefield; the Mongols were lightly armoured horse-archers riding small steppe ponies and carrying little but ‘home-made’ weapons for close combat, whereas the heavily armoured Mamluks, on larger Arab-bred horses, could match them in their mounted archery and then close and kill with the lance, club and … However, the Mamluks fought several other wars and battles against the Mongols and other foes, and they emerged victorious in almost all their major military encounters. Although this war among the khanates drew off much of Hulagu's strength, he continued to attack the Mamluks, as did his successors. Interestingly enough, during this time the Crusaders controlled several small coastal principalities in the Holy Land. Possibly, the greater professionalism and more advanced weapons of the Mamluks gave them an edge. 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